The United Kingdom Parliament's 1998 "Science and Technology-Ninth Report" noted:

"Dr. Anita Holdcroft of Hammersmith Hospital...has reported the results of a placebo-controlled trial of cannabis in a patient with severe chronic pain of gastrointestinal origin...The patient's demand for morphine was substantially lower during treatment with cannabis than during a period of placebo treatment."

The Journal of Clinical Investigation published an article in Apr. 2004 by F. Massa, et al., from the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich, titled "The Endogenous Cannabinoid System Protects Against Colonic Inflammation," that stated:

"The major active constitutent of the plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana), THC, and a variety of natural and synthetic cannabinoids have been shown to possess... anti-inflammatory activities...

Results indicate that the endogenous cannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of intestinal disease conditions characterized by excessive inflammatory responses."